By Mario Livio, Keith Noll, Massimo Stiavelli
Precis of the achievements of the Hubble area Telescope in its first decade of operation.
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Interpreting the highest frequency detected as an electron gyrofrequency implied a maximum ﬁeld strength of 10 Gauss. Jupiter’s ionosphere was ﬁrst detected by radio occultation during the Pioneer 10 ﬂyby in 1974 (Kliore et al. 1974), and ground-based telescopic observations ﬁrst detected the plasma torus in the mid 1970s (Brown & Yung 1976). It was during the Voyager 1 ﬂyby in 1979 that Jupiter’s UV auroral were ﬁrst observed (Broadfoot et al. 1979), and during this and the Voyager 2 encounter the long aperture of the UVS was used to map the equatorward extent of the UV auroral emissions.
Highly favorable Earth-Mars viewing conditions over the ﬁrst few oppositions of the 21st century plus planned telescope and instrument upgrades and improvements will provide continued opportunities for signiﬁcant and unique contributions to Mars studies using HST . The results described here are based on the work of many PIs and Co-Is on GO and GTO programs during the past decade. I am especially grateful to Mike Wolﬀ (SSI) for his review of an earlier draft of this manuscript. I also thank P. James (U.
1999). 8. Summary of initial STIS results The advent of STIS on HST has provided much higher sensitivity images of Jupiter’s UV aurora than previously possible, thanks to its solar-blind photon-counting detector. Initial concerns about bright-light protection prevented images of Jupiter from being acquired until September 1997, and time-tagged images were ﬁrst taken in December 1997. The ﬁrst images were taken back to back with WFPC2 images for a direct comparison of the capabilities of the two cameras, as shown in Figure 10.