By Roger Crowley
A gripping exploration of the autumn of Constantinople and its connection to the realm we are living in today.
The fall of Constantinople in 1453 signaled a shift in heritage and the tip of the Byzantium Empire. Roger Crowley's readable and entire account of the conflict among Mehmet II, sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and Constantine XI, the 57th emperor of Byzantium, illuminates the interval in background that used to be a precursor to the present clash among the West and the center East.
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Extra resources for 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West
Heavy fighting over the next few days resulted in the Turks pushing the Australians and British off Hill 60 who began to entrench along the main southern ridge of Damakjelik Bair while the Turks dug in and reinforced Hill 60 and its inland spur known to the Turks as Yauan Tepe. 12 Hill 60 was thought to be crowned with a redoubt consisting of several concentric rings of trenches, but in places these trenches had not been completed. Much of the defences around Hill 60 could not be observed as thick scrub still covered the hill.
With this, the Gallipoli Campaign ground to a halt. Now, the machinations of politicians in London, egged on by some senior military commanders who wanted the Gallipoli fiasco over with, came to the fore. Anyone with any common sense knew – they would argue – that the war had to be fought on the Western Front. Men and material, they said, should not be wasted on sideshows like Gallipoli. Meanwhile, journalists such as Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett and Keith Murdoch also argued for the campaign to be ended, but for very different reasons.
Tragically it was not to be. Just before the attack, the sun became hidden behind clouds and the Turkish lines themselves disappeared from view because of a haze rising up from the salt plains. For the men involved it must have seemed an ill omen. m. that morning. His division would represent the northern flank of the British attack. The 87th Brigade was to attack Scimitar Hill, while the 86th Brigade was to capture 112 Metre Hill. As soon as these positions were held, both brigades were to then turn inwards and attack the intervening trenches, consolidating the northern flank of the attack.